Chapter 8 - The whirlpool universe
Unlike the big bang theory, the fluid energy theory for the creation of the universe
is not based upon any observations that require us to invent conditions that are
illogical, weird or break any of the known physical laws. It was conceived from
pure logic to explain the behaviour of matter and radiation as we see and can test
here upon the Earth.
FET is based upon the assumption that in the beginning there was only one real substance,
energy, which may at one time have been spread evenly throughout the whole of infinite
space. With no motions it would have been a period when time stood still and temperature
had no meaning. Just from this premise I was able to deduce three important properties
- It is a continuous substance.
- It is highly compressible.
- It has a limit beyond which it cannot be compressed any further.
in chapter 3 that by identifying the first two of these properties of energy it
logically followed that once it started to flow, no matter how small that flow,
it built up into a self-sustaining circular motion like a whirlpool and generated
a centripetal force. An energy whirlpool differs from a whirlpool that we see in
water because in the latter the water is drawn inwards and then has to be expelled
downwards as it cannot be compressed (figure 42).
In an energy whirlpool the energy is compressed and does not therefore have to be
redirected anywhere. So whereas a water whirlpool exists in three dimensional space
an energy whirlpool exists in a single plane as a two dimensional phenomenon. It
is the centripetal force of a whirlpool that gives neutrons their perpetual spin,
explains why magnets generate magnetic fields, why gyroscopes perform gravity defying
feats and why the motions of stars within galaxies deviate from Newton’s law of
The birth of the universe can therefore be said to have occurred when whirlpools
of energy started to develop throughout infinite space. Whirlpools come in all sizes
but they really only have a major affect upon the structure of the universe at six
magnitudes. These I have labelled as quantum, small, intermediate, large, mega and
Whirlpools can be smaller than atoms or as large as the visible universe or maybe
even larger. In practice though we find that there are minimum and maximum sizes
of whirlpool that have any effect in this universe. The largest whirlpools are so
large that they contain within them zillions of smaller whirlpools that are still
large enough for themselves to contain zillions of smaller whirlpools and so on
until we reach the smallest whirlpools that are empty.
Because small whirlpools extend over smaller areas than large whirlpools they encompass
less energy and have less distance in which to compress it. Consequently the smaller
the whirlpool the faster it develops. The smallest whirlpools have no further whirlpools
inside them and hence I have labelled them as quantum whirlpools. They also have
a different fate to those that have whirlpools inside them.
One definition of the beginning of time may be the point where the energy of the
universe first began to move. When this happened the motions paired up to form regions
of space that began to rotate about each other. Each pair generated a centripetal
force that drew in more and more energy that increased its density. Just as skaters
spin faster by drawing in their arms, the drawing in of energy by whirlpools increased
their spin rates. The innermost and therefore smallest whirlpools could proceed
unhindered by other motions within them and therefore they continued to accelerate
to incredible speeds of rotation.
All this time the density of the energy was increasing until at a critical speed
of 0.7232x1023rps the energy density at the centre of a whirlpool became so high
that it solidified and a neutron particle began to form. Thus the first force to
be created was the centripetal force. This force was attractive in that it drew
energy towards a central region of a whirlpool. The centripetal force though is
not directed straight towards the centre but spirals inwards and therefore differs
from the gravitational force, which only appeared after regions of continuum energy
The first particles grew by drawing the continuum energy down to a string and winding
it up upon the core. The string diameter in our part of the universe is around 10-40m
so that even at the high spin rate quoted above it takes a very long time for the
particles to increase in size. I estimated that the growth of immature neutrons
requires a period of around 1019 years before a critical size of 1.3195x10-15m is
established. A critical size exists because there comes a point where the centrifugal
force within a solid particle overcomes the centripetal force forcing fluid energy
into its solid form and the particle fractionates into a solid core with an outer
shell reverting back to the fluid form.
Although quantum whirlpools smaller than an atom might form within a region of fluid
energy there is a minimum size that can lead to the creation of solidified energy.
Whirlpools have to be large enough to possess the angular momentum of a nuclear
particle otherwise they will not generate a centripetal force large enough to solidify
the energy encompassed within them.
Those that are large enough may eventually create a core of solid energy with a
diameter equal to that of a neutron particle. The surface speed of a core of this
size and spinning at 0.7232x1023rps just happens to be light speed and this explains
why photons, which are packets of fluid energy ejected from cores of solid energy,
all travel at this particular speed.
Neutron particles though do not break apart into two or more separate pieces because
the centripetal force immediately forces some of the fluidised energy to become
re-solidified upon the core. Thus an equilibrium state is established where some
of the solidified energy is ejected as a jet of fluid energy effectively extending
to approximately 10-10m before it is pulled back down onto the core, re-solidified
and then ejected again. This is easiest to picture as a continuous band of fluid
energy as shown in figure 31 of chapter 5.
The solid cores that grow to the size of neutrons are therefore transformed into
smaller solid cores known as protons with a region of fluid energy circulating around
them known as electrons. Thus, according to FET, when neutrons reach a critical
size they become protons with an attached electron and are known as hydrogen atoms.
As hydrogen atoms are not separate entities as currently assumed we do not need
to invent the positive and negative electrical charges to attract protons to electrons
because it is the continuous flow of fluid energy as an electron around a solid
proton core that gives rise to what we call the electromagnetic force. The solid
proton cores continue to suck in string energy from the continuum at a slightly
slower rate than the neutrons before they flipped into hydrogen atoms and therefore
they continue to generate a gravitational force.
In the quantum whirlpools the fluid energy can be compressed until it solidifies
and therefore they always develop into neutrons and then hydrogen atoms. If two
of these quantum whirlpools were enclosed within a small whirlpool their presence
would prevent this whirlpool from creating its own solid centre. This is because
being larger it would develop more slowly and it would therefore contain two cores
of solid energy rotating around the centre of the small whirlpool. Its centripetal
force would gradually draw them together until they eventually collided. If they
were still in their immature neutron stage it would be like two hard spinning tops
colliding and they would simply bounce apart. But if they had developed into hydrogen
atoms then their fluid energy regions could be used to bind them together as hydrogen
If the two enclosed particles were created from slightly different sized whirlpools
they would develop at different rates so that one might have reached the hydrogen
atom stage whilst the other was still an immature neutron. A collision between these
two particles would result in a deuterium atom. Whirlpools that contained more than
two particles could force several of them together to create tritium, helium and
other atoms and some of these are discussed in the following chapter.
Hence small sized whirlpools do not create new matter particles but are responsible
for most of the formation of the lighter elements by forcing hydrogen atoms and
neutrons together. I will show later that fluid electron energy that circulates
around each proton core not only allows solid cores to be bonded together to create
the nuclei of heavier elements it also allows atoms to bond together to form molecules.
Small whirlpools may contain tens, hundreds, even thousands of quantum whirlpools
but their effect upon atom building diminishes as they increase in size. As neutrons
reach the mature stage and flip into the hydrogen atom form the numbers of immature
neutrons diminishes and therefore the formation of deuterium and higher isotopes
falls off. The hydrogen atoms continue to pair off until they are all converted
into hydrogen molecules but then no further changes occur until the effect of the
next size up whirlpool kicks into operation.
Intermediate sized whirlpools gradually collect the hydrogen molecules and the few
other elements together into gas clouds. Within this cloud there will develop millions
of regions where the gas density increases faster than the average for the whole
cloud. This is like the seeding of steam coming from a boiling kettle. Dust particles
in the air act as condensation points for the steam and lead to the production of
water droplets. In the case of a gas cloud the seeds are the largest of the small
whirlpools and the smallest of the intermediate whirlpools. The biggest seeds always
grow at the expense of smaller seeds and therefore the smallest whirlpools gradually
combine to form larger and larger whirlpools.
This process of whirlpool coalescence gradually depletes the surroundings of smaller
whirlpools and growth by this means eventually comes to a stop. The largest whirlpools
in this group though, now have sufficient particles within them to create a sizeable
gravitational field. This field results from the combined inflow of string energy
into every neutron.
The gravitational force pulls in continuum energy from all three dimensions and
therefore we no longer have particles coming together as disc shaped entities but
as spheres. The gravitational force flows directly into a spherical body from all
around and therefore differs from the centripetal force that spirals inwards along
one plane. All bodies generate a gravitational flow of continuum energy into them
and the flow rate depends upon the size of that body. A body the size of the Sun
that contains around 1057 particles produces a combined rate of flow of continuum
energy at its surface that is equal to 618km.s-1. And as I showed in chapter 7 this
flow rate is exactly equal to its escape velocity.
As an intermediate whirlpool concentrates its matter particles at its centre we
find that the gravitational force gradually overpowers the centripetal force and
begins to dominate what happens within its effective radius. But as the flow rate
of gravitational energy decreases with distance from a body in accordance with the
inverse square rule there comes a point where the gravitational flow rate becomes
lower than the centripetal flow rate of its whirlpool and no longer overpowers it.
This places a limit upon the effective extent of a gravitational force from even
the largest of bodies. I will enlarge upon this effect in chapter 11.
Intermediate whirlpools can be sub-divided into two main categories, the first being
responsible for the formation of gaseous planets and the second that is responsible
for the creation of stars. It is only in these intermediate sized whirlpools where
the gravitational force dominates over and eventually replaces the centripetal force.
These whirlpools were and still are so large that they can encompass billions of
intermediate whirlpools. Being so large they develop really slowly so that by the
time the first stars within them begin to shine they are still rotating quite slowly.
Large whirlpools also come in a range of sizes but like intermediate sized whirlpools
they tend to produce only two basic structures. The larger of the two gives rise
to galaxies and the smaller to what are called star clusters, which might be considered
to be failed galaxies in the same way that gaseous planets are sometimes called
When astronomers began to map the universe they found that galaxies were not evenly
or randomly distributed throughout the universe but were located together in clusters.
These can now be easily explained as being the result of many large whirlpools being
confined within a mega sized whirlpool.
We can go on up at least one more step to where these clusters of galaxies are situated
within a gargantuan sized whirlpool. These whirlpools can be considered to have
given rise to the great wall structures of galaxies. There could be even larger
structures that we have not yet identified because the stars this far away are so
faint that they cannot be seen here upon the Earth. Or possibly we may be at the
stage in the evolution of the universe where there has been insufficient time for
such large structures to be created because the largest whirlpools rotate so slowly
that they may not have yet had time to develop into more organised structures. It
is far more likely though that, as explained in chapter 11, no large scale structuring
greater than that already observed will ever exist because the centripetal force
would be too weak to prevent galaxies from being exchanged between them allowing
the larger structures to blend together.
To summarise then, quantum whirlpools create neutrons and hydrogen atoms, small
whirlpools draw these together to form the lightest elements and simple compounds,
intermediate whirlpools create gaseous planets and stars, large whirlpools create
star clusters and galaxies, mega whirlpools create clusters of galaxies and gargantuan
whirlpools the great wall structures.
FET therefore predicts a stepwise creation mechanism that describes the creation
of the smallest particles to the large scale structure of the universe that fits
with our general observations of the way the universe looks. It does so in a totally
reasonable and logical way using only known physical laws with perhaps the exception
of the centripetal force. This force though is not new to us, but it has until now
remained a mystery. Now compare the fluid energy model with the big bang model.
One explains how the universe was made from just one substance, how forces arose
and how they structured this substance into particles, atoms, stars and galaxies.
The other tells us that matter just happened to appear by chance out of nothing
and not much more.
In the following chapter I will proceed with the next step of the creation process,
the origin of atoms other than hydrogen.